Is there any sort of attribute editor in blender where you can make a light effect certain objects but not others?
you can move your objects to different layers and activate the “Layers” button in the light options. this makes the light affect only the objects in its layer. thats pretty much the closest you can get.
Or you can add your lamps into different groups (Control G), and go to Shading Context>Material Subcontext>Shaders Panel, and input the group of the lights that you want to illuminate your object, and press Exclusive. Since lights can be in different groups at the same time, this can work well.