Blender data acces with C program


I am good in C programming, but I can’t and not want the full blender compile and build.
How can I acces and modify the blender datas with a external C program (I use Linux Mint).
I would like use the C program only for mesh editing: change vertex coordinates.

An update view and automatic render wouldn’t be bad either. I think, for this I need a python script, but how can I run the script with a external command (c program)?