This script adds a new operator that you can bind to a hotkey, and it does the following:
When you press the hotkey assigned to it, it centres the 3D view on the mesh location that your mouse cursor is hovering over.
The operator that this script adds is view3d.center_on_mouse.
After installing the script like a 3rd party addon, you can go to User Preferences, Input tab and then add a hotkey that calls that operator.
If you add it to an input category like 3D View -> 3D View (Global) it can be used while sculpting. Maybe there’s already a script like this?