There are different schools of thought in electrical design much the same as there are different workflows here. But like making a scene you (tend) to start with the big picture and work your way down to the details. In electronics design It is much the same way. Rather then think of it on a component by component level Many engineers focus on the how they want the data to be manipulated then design the supporting circuitry from there. And all of the components that are put on one microchip could also be built out of other digital chips and assembled together on a circuit board or as my instructor said and then had tasked the class to prove prove it, There is no logic gate or digital circuit that you can not build out of 7400’s (2 input nand gates). As such cpu design is still digital circuit.
I am shakey in micro-architectural design, I do have my engineering degree but most of my career has been as a troubleshooter and working on avionics/radar systems.
If you want a taste of circuit design https://www.circuitlab.com/ is not a ‘bad’ program to play with. Although personally I would suggest a proto-board and finding some projects to build. tesla coils and radio projects are nice for that…and read up on electrical safety as well. Don’t want to kill yourself by becoming part of the circuit. Not that I speak from personal experience or anything