Is there an addon or just an easy way to edit primitives AFTER creation?

e.g, edit sides on a cylinder after it was already created

What I’m doing currently is creating to cylinders at the same time, one high poly and one low poly, and just scaling, moving them, etc… together, all the time. Not an ideal situation…

try edit mode.

Indeed, don’t forget, primitives are just that, in edit mode you take a primitive and develop it. If you want a great example of how effective that can be, check out the Hard Ops thread, a LOT of the boxes on there, no matter how detailed, started life as a simple cube primitive. Watching a couple of thoes videos may give you an insight, you don’t need the plugin, BoolTool is free and with a bit of manual work, you could get it done without spending money.

‘No’ would be a short answer; no in a long form - no, as soon as you start to do something with added primitive options available upon creation are gone (and you’d need to create another cylinder with more circle points to fit your design better or smooth out circle where you added points using available modeling tools).
You’re looking at the feature available in ‘that other’, commercial, software.