Need help understanding how Blender works as a software


I am a mechanical engineering student, and time came to write my diploma aka bachelor thesis.
Since im very interested in 3d and design I chose an assignment, that involves using blender to implement visual improvements on a physical simulation.

My question is, can anyone direct me to some sources where I can learn about how blender actually works as a software? I don’t need anything too sciency, I just want to be able to explain in simple terms the basic principle that blender as a software uses, so it can take data from memory, and represent it in space with colors, textures and lighting in form of a render or animation.

I guess specifically, how does it store data, and how does it interact with data, so it can do what it does?
What about color and texture data? Where is that stored, and how is it then calculated in the final renders?
How does rendering work?

I know its a tall order, but Id like to find some resources on these topics, so I can simplify them and present them in a couple of paragraphs, before the actual practical part of the diploma.

Id like to thank anyone, who can send me in the right direction.

Good day!