# The Universe on a String

Atoms are made of protons neutrons and electrons, those three elemntry particles are made of even smaller sub atomic particles, getting right down the the smallest particles ‘Quarks’ and finally this string theory says that even these smallest particles are made of units of energy or ‘strings’ which vibrate at a certain frequency, the frequency gives a string its ‘type’.(AD-Edge because I didn’t feel like writing my own :))

The string thoery says (in my own words)
That everything in the universe is made up of strings, yes STRINGS, we are just strings… These strings all have different frequencies that move according to whatever it is… BUt for this to be true, there needs to be 7 more dimensions of SPACE… WOW, really? Where are they? We have X, Y and Z (Width, Length and Height). We have 1 dimension in time… Which is non other but TIME, so what more can there be?

The reason they need to have 7 more dimensions in space, because the string frequencies needs to react around them.

This is my mini explaination if you want the full explaination here…

Brian Greene: The Universe on a String

So, I understand why they need more then three dimension, but what are they? Where are they? What more can there be then Forward/Back(Y), Left/Right(X) and Up/Down(Z).

I didn’t understand the part that explained these, I have a hard time wrapping around my head that’s there are 4 dimensions of space, and they are saying there are 11 including time, I don’t understand where these dimensions could be!

Does anybody have any ideas? Do scientists know already? I’ve heard about this experiment they are going to do in Genva(sorry don’t know how to spell it), but it’s about finding another dimension by measuring the mass of an atom after it breaks open by bashing into another one. They say if the atom ways less, some of the mass disappeared into another dimension… Where can it be? Am I getting the thoery wrong? If it is please explain, I like to know about these things

But I’m hoping I’m party right

We can’t realize what doesn’t exist for us. Let’s say there is a 2D world, only moving on the X, and Y axiz, so they have no idea that the Z axis exists so they don’t understand. We could say “It’s simple!”, because we live in a world with a Z axis.

So we can’t imagine what the other dimension is in the 4th one, only because it doesn’t exist for us. But, the 4th dimension world could say “It’s simple!”, because they live in it.

Zootanore is right, we can’t exactly imagine a 4th dimension. Same as they can’t imagine a 5th dimension and so on. There are ten dimensions in our universe; 4 are knowable, 6 are not. Of the 4 that we know: 3 are for space and one for time. As we call space the ‘X, Y and Z’ axes, the ‘time axis’ would be a W axis going orthoganally across the planes. The string and superstring theories are some of the TOE’s (Theory Of Everything) that scientists have being trying to figure out for years, trying to unify the 4 fundemental forces (strong force, electromagnetism, weak force and gravity).

There’s a lot more to it but that’s something more to confuse you!

The only real people to understand are the Particle physicists and people like Einstein.

Lol the human mind is a very limited thing, which most people wouldn’t realize, as Ive explained it to my friends many times. We are limited to how much we can properly comprehend, which honestly isn’t very much.

Try to visualize 1 meter (easy)
Now try visualizing 1km (difficult to comprehend properly)
The distance from here to the moon (impossible to comprehend)
The width of the galaxy, the number of stars in the galaxy, the distance between each galaxy??? The human mind isn’t built for comprehending such things.

And thats just simple stuff in 3 dimensions.

We’re not capable of understanding or seeing these things, the only way to work with them is though mathematics.

I saw that video a while back, its pretty interesting. A lot of the TED things are, I’d recommend 2 of Brian Cox’s videos, if you haven’t seen them yet.

Brian explaining the LHC and makeup of the universe - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_6uKZWnJLCM
Brief explanation of what went wrong with the LHC - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YnAVjkuQz-Y

He talks about the particles which make up the universe, but doesn’t go all the way to string theory (since its just a theory) but I think he mentions it at times.

Also I wouldnt say that String theory explains ‘why everything is’

Its more of a defining theory which explains the smallest building blocks in the universe.

Atoms are made of protons neutrons and electrons, those three elemntry particles are made of even smaller sub atomic particles, getting right down the the smallest particles ‘Quarks’ and finally this string theory says that even these smallest particles are made of units of energy or ‘strings’ which vibrate at a certain frequency, the frequency gives a string its ‘type’.

First of all, the String-theory is WIP. There is at least one other Theory, also having a lot of scientists, working on it: Loop quantum gravity
Second, the actual “string”-theory was the start. By now, they more think of Mem"branes", shaping the M-theory. This was caused by a split into 5 different string theories (back then, they assumed 10 Dimensions). There was an other theory then, already working with 11 Dimensions but it was laughed at.
But when the string theories got an 11th dimension, things went clear, suddenly, making the five different theories part of a more general version. So, they turned out to be all the same.
That new combines theory, as said, is the M-theory…
We’re all made of tiny hyperdimensionally wrapped planes, with waves, rippling on them all the time.
http://www.allthingsscience.com/video/472/Parallel-Universes--Part-1
http://www.allthingsscience.com/video/471/Parallel-Universes--Part-2
http://www.allthingsscience.com/video/470/Parallel-Universes–Part-3
http://www.allthingsscience.com/video/469/Parallel-Universes–Part-4
http://www.allthingsscience.com/video/468/Parallel-Universes–Part-5

(xkcd.com)

hah, yeah, know that. A very nice page

Welll, my theory is that the universe is only one of billions universes, and there all like a badly formed ball form, and these are like galaxies in other megaverses and so on…

ahh, I see, I didn’t understand the video well, when I saw it, it was 2am xD, time to edit!

@rednerrednelb: aahhh, I see, they are there, but we can’t imagine them… lol, likes saying, before the big bang, there was no time or space… How are we suppose to imagine that?!

ha aha thanks!

@Zoontanore: I understood yours from rednerrenelb Thanks!

@Alex_ADEdge: We can only understand things we can’t imagine through math 0.o, I’ll have some fun with that xD Thnx for the videos btw

@Kram: ooh more videos! yay! I find these things interesting

@Plantperson: LOLOL

@Konoha: Mines a bit different… I think that the universe has alternatate paths… For example… In this universe, we have me sitting on the computer typing, on another one, I’m eating breakfast ready to go play football outside, in another one, we are on another I’m on another planet, I’m an alien, and on another one, I’m dead 0.o… So I think each and every universe has a different possible posibility… That means, since there are infinate posibities, there are ifanite universes…

Like a different branch on a tree…

Your on a branch writing a test… [Central Branch]
You fail the test, you get a tottally different future, let’s say you got to be a hobo 0.o[Split1]
You Pass the test, your a billionaire!![Split2]

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‘strings’ which vibrate at a certain frequency according to the dimentions around it
I think xD

I saw on the discovery channel that space actually bends around large-enough suns. There are areas of space with no stars and the areas with stars seem to be circular.

It bends around all mass, just more on bigger masses…

Imagine putting a bowling ball on a matris, the matris is space and the bowling ball is a large mass, the matris indents, then you get a marble, the matris makes a small indent, and the marble gets pulled it by the bowling balls indent.

And I’ve heard that all galaxies are in a muge mass called Dark Matter, we can’t see it but everything in the unverse is surronded by it.

That’s what I’ve read and watched

Those proposed extra dimensions are also assumed to be very small. Something smaller than the wavelength of visible light is invisible to us, and similarly the extra dimensions are too small to be directly perceived by us.

Actually anyone can. It’s the power of maths and abstraction, nothing else.

Mathematicians work with infinite dimensional objects and “understand” them, but in a different way than they understand the 3 typical dimensions of space. Abstraction makes it possible to work with objects which we can’t perceive or imagine. You “understand” them by understanding the rules they obey to, the equations that describe them, the functions that can be defined there.
An example are Groups. Any Mathematician / Physicist has a certain understanding of what a Group is, yet they can be extraordinarily complicated objects. Like the Friendly Giant. (which is the automorphism group of some 196884-dimensional algebra - 11 dimensions are a piece of cake ).
It’s a special way of thinking, once you know the notation (I can tell you, notation and definitions can be a real challenge to begin with) and the basic principles of how to work with certain axioms / equations / definitions / methods, you begin to get a feeling for what you’re working with. You develop some kind of intuition and that’s (mostly) as far as it goes.
But actually that’s already enough to “understand” something and come up with such things as extra dimensions. Some people are better at that than others, obviously, but I doubt that anyone can really “see” a 11-dimensional space.

…kind of hard to describe. Hope it makes some sense =D

kram1032 is right about string theory being just a theory and a work in progress. Now in the science community a theory is as close to fact as anyone can really say, science can change and often does as history shows, however there are differing degrees of completeness.

Quantum mechanics has proved itself time and time again to make astonishingly accurate predictions and so is pretty well trusted by nearly everyone in the scientific community. String theory has not yet made testable predictions, though it has a great deal of mathematical backing, one of the pitfalls string theory will have to overcome is producing observations which is hard when the strings are so small they cant be detected by anything we have or can think of to date. There are some non string theories that are similar and try to do the same thing string theory is doing which is to unify our understanding and produce a simple and elegant theory that explains everything in our universe.

One theory, E8 theory, which sounds pretty compelling seems very much like string theory and does make some predictions, and is in some ways simpler than string thoery. Like string theory it needs more evidence to support it.

There’s also a great thought experiment, not really a formal theory! Called Imagining the Tenth Dimension, it helps to get a better understanding of what other higher dimensions might look like. I highly recommend this one.
Here’s a youtube one if you don’t have flash. Imagining the Tenth Dimension