What I would do is look up (google) how to make all these types of maps, since there are a lot of resources out there that will guide you through the process better than asking one question per day and waiting for a response. Don’t be afraid to look at references outside of Blender for some help. Mappings pretty much follow the same principals from one to the other. Types of maps include (which 3dmedieval had mentioned before).
Ambient Occlusion (usually generated from a render)
And maybe a couple more that I have forgotten, but that can all be used together in a layered and/or nodal combination to achieve a desired result.
Color uses color information
Normal uses a bit of a strange color combination to define influence
And most of the others use Gray-scale information to define the influence of the map on the surface.
And resolution of the maps can be dependent on the application or intended use.
Bottom line, you really have to get down and study, and many concepts are easy to grasp and can be applied to something else, it’s the work and the application that can be a little cumbersome at times.