Very nice modelling. But you’re going to go mad, and they are going to have to come and pick you up off the floor, and the walls, and the ceiling and put you in ten different sacks to stop you from fighting with yourself.
You have 20 different layers and you’re only using 2 of them. A good plan for a job like this is to have objects with the same material on the same layer, or on layers next to one another. For objects that need to be UVMapped put each one on its own layer. And give them names. If you can’t think of a name then Ring_Layer1 will be much better than Circle.026. But use all those layers!
For the UVMapping you will need to use LSCM and make seams. (or use the unfolder script). The reason it is stretching is because the UVFaces in the UVEditor had some faces projected with their normals pointing not-straight-at-you. So when you look at them in the 3D view the number is stretched,
About the white question: Some of your materials are white and maybe they just didn’t get UVMapped. But it might also be the (default white) VertexColor of objects that have been in UVFace mode but have not been mapped to an image yet.
This is a very complex file so I didn’t dig too deep.
The distortion is happening because of the subdivision surfaces. If you turn off subdivs, the texture looks correct. This is not a solution but there has to be a way around it.
You can of course turn the highly subdivided model into polygons and then texture map it but that’s not really a good solution.
BTW, your texture is way too big and you shouldn’t use JPG for an image like that as it has a lot of redundancy. If you get an image editor and cut out the numbers section only (this doesn’t affect the quality btw) and save as a compressed tiff, tga or png, you can get the image under 100k instead of 1.1MB and it is far lower resolution so displays better on your graphics card. For example:
To get the other points as black, you can shrink them as small as you like and put then in one of the black bits because it just interpolates the image.
I thought the brightness of the object was because you have vcollight turned on in the material settings. This lets vertex colours act as lights. But I’m not sure it is. It should be off anyway.
Also, I really wouldn’t have modelled those fine ring shapes. They are so small that a bump map would have done the job so much more easily and your scene would render quite a bit faster.
to avoid the subsurf distortions, UV map your model, then with it subsurfaced to the desired level, convert to mesh ( a duplicate,…keep the original ), and use that mesh for doing all the texturing. then when you load it back onto your original model and subsurface it, it lays out as it should. i don’t know why this works but it does.
I wish there was a better way. This essentially limits you to one subsurf level so you have to make sure you get it right first time. You probably wouldn’t have to make the texture again but you’d have to UVmap again. I can see this making UV unwrapping harder too. No wonder people just use procedural textures.
This is a known problem in Blender (for me too). I did a simple coffee mug one time and found out, to my disappointment, that the unwrapped mug was distorted slightly on the UVEditor.
Being that it is a simple mug, I was able to manually adjust the vertices in the UVEditor, by hand. I had to do this In “Potato Mode”.
It shouldn’t be that difficult to do, being that you have a black back and the numbers are spaced apart.
Warning, if you plan on subsrfing this mesh, you’ll have problems. The UV image will be stretched to the nearest “loop”. To help fix that, you’ll need to ad a few tight rows of vertices above and below your critical UV area. If you are totally confused on this, let me knoe. I can post a tutorial on that.