Which hotkey?

I’d like to ask you how to choose for example File or Object (see image):

(For example, in the Gimp program is Alt + F, etc.)

I was looking for in a panel User Preferences but I did not find any hotkey.

Look at the python call for the option

In File / User Preferences / Input create a new shortcut for the appropriate window (this one in 3D View / 3D View (Global)). The File menu would be in the Info section to set shortcuts for the Info window. Note the shortcut works with the cursor in the window not when on the header so you’ll have to expand the info window down

This would create a Ctrl+Alt+O to open the Object menu. The mouse cursor would have to be in the appropriate window for the shortcut to work and not have the shortcut used should not conflict with any other existing shortcuts.

Then use the Save User Settings button so these changes are saving into your default settings