Working only with procedural material is quite extreme, but it’s common to use procedural textures here and there. You can use a cloud texture to mix two titleable images for instance.
There are other attempt to make an universal format for material : http://www.materialx.org/
I think it’s really a non-trivial tasks, but at some point it will append. For years exporting geometry from one software to another was really complicated ( for animated meshs) now it gets simpler and we have different format suited for different needs ( .mdd , .fbx , .abc) .
With PBR, render engines gets more standardized and you can get the same results using different software ( redshift , cycles , arnold ) . So it gets simpler to make a standard at least for basics materials.
There are a lot of render engine and applications , you don’t work the same way if you are into realtime , animation or VFX so maybe we’ll see different exange format like for exporting geometry.
All that said, as every software as his specifics there will never be an universal 1 to 1 export format.