At my studio we may deal with a few different outputs but the basic pipeline is the same. However it evolved over time, and is something I sill tweak constantly. Also client’s needs drive a lot of it. And then, if I am looking to perfect things, or improve with new software it can require refactoring many things.
Rather than look at software, it is probably best to think about what any pipeline needs.
Some way to concept based on clients needs - usually 2D
Some way to realize the design with no constraints from technology. This can be sculpting or high definition polygon modeling. Or a way to read and import CAD models.
Some way to optimize the higher definition model. Retopolgy.
Some way to prep it for transferring details from the high definition model. Usually UV
Some way to bake those details into image maps.
Painting on the model to add more detail.
For characters or other animation assets, a rigging system.
An animation system.
A Dynamics system.
A rendering solution. VFX, Film or Game.
For film and VFX some kind of post processing.
It is quite common that many software solutions are used to get this done. Which is very much true at my studio. Which then also means dealing with all of the interchange issues between apps. For that, we stick with fbx, obj or Alembic mostly.