Why won't my smoke follow my particles?

Hello, this is my first time posting, I hope I’m doing it correctly.

I have a bit of an unusual situation. I know people do regularly have problems getting smoke to follow particles, but I do have the domain set up and the emitter set to particles. I have a curve guide force field to guide the particles themselves, and that part seems to be working, but the smoke isn’t following the particles as they follow the curve guide.

The overall goal is to get curlier, wispier smoke like you would get from exhaling cigarette smoke or vape steam. It’s for export, I’ll be using the vdbs in another program, so the shaders or render settings don’t really matter as far as I know, and the “use a soft body” method doesn’t work for that reason either. So far using textures or just settings has been unsuccessful in getting the shape and look that I want, so the next thing I thought I’d try was the curve guide.

Here is the blend file.