Blotchies When Adding Subdivision

I’m quite new to blender and have been trying to create a shape.
Started with a cube added ring cuts and stretched/moved things around.
I read about mirror so I cut the cube in half as I would like the left and right symmetrical. That seems to work.

Its only playing around to learn and so not important. If possible, would someone please give me some pointers on something I do not understand?

To round things off, I saw a tutorial which said add go to edit mode, select the object and add a subdivide

When I do this there are some blotches. I cant see and vertices to move or work out the cause.

I tried removing the mirror and only added the subdivide to keep things simple.

I made a couple of screenshots

Sorry being new, it only lets me add 1 image.

Thank you to anyone who may have some suggestions.

Hello there and welcome!

What you’re seeing here is your mesh before and after the effects of the modifier. These two versions tend to overlap in a rather confusing way, so you can turn off modifier display for Edit Mode.
Most modifiers have these options:

The one on the right is Edit Mode, which lets you see the modifier effect as you do now. Turn it off to see only the real mesh.
The one on the left is On Cage option, which lets you see and manipulate vertices and edges as if they were already changed by the modifier. This option can be rather misleading, so I don’t recommend modeling with it unless you know what you’re doing.


Thank You for answering.

To add to @StrayBillie answer,

There is a subdivision surface modifier which subdivides your mesh and smooths it out, your vertices basically become a cage you can use to manipulate it.

Then there is the subdivide operation, you can access it by selecting your mesh in edit mode and pressing W and selecting subdivide. A small collapsed box will appear in the bottom left you can open to further customize and tweak the subdivide operation.

See image below, left is the modifier, right is the operation.

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Thank You for taking the time to answer.
Maybe one day I will be good enough to be able to help others.