Sure can you use subdiv surfaces for that. If you are new to all this, have a look at edge creases and how they work for subdivision surfaces and in blender first, thats a must for modeling hard edges on subdivion surfaces. And taking a look at some youtube blender videos for hardsurface modeling should get you more informed on typical workflows in blender.
Bevels for example can be modelled directly, added as a byproduct of subdivision surfaces, shaders, bevel modifiers.
Supporting edges or edge creases on the basemesh are alternative ways to control the smoothing amount of edges for subdivision surfaces.
For the bevel modifier you can define vertex groups to restrict the amount of edges included.
And for all these bevel methods its rather about what is benefitial in a specific situation than always stick to one of these methods.
Blender can work with ngons, make use of that and have an eye on a good topology.
There are so many “depends on” cases, that its hard to answer your questions in short.
Btw. for hardsurface modeling there are some quite nifty addons on available like this one.
Have a look at it. I hope that helps. Good luck!