Applying a texture to a model does not change the shape of the model. Using a Normal or Displacement input in the texture can give a more 3D look - except at the silhouette edges.
Conversely, to get the geometry to actually change, you need to use a Displacement modifier with an appropriate texture.
Upon further reflection –
What you may be trying to accomplish would involve scaling up your UVs to be larger than the “Styrofoam ball” in the image. Then plug the image’s alpha output into the facto for the mix shader. Since the image is cropped so tightly, I also changed the extrapolation in the Image texture to “Clip.”
The Material (without the extra nodes):
The image without the extra nodes
The image with the extra nodes (plus plugging the Alpha output of the Image Texture):
(perhaps ignore the following - this was done before I scaled up the UV as above - which gave the “border” effect around the object)
Speaking of the texture - this is an incredibly complicated node tree, and I have no idea what it is accomplishing. It took two+ minutes to render as is (although I got a “CUDA out of memory” error at the end which seemed very odd. I re-rendered without denoising, and the image looked identical but I did not have the CUDA error.
I then plugged the image texture directly into the Principled shader, and it took half as long and looked similar if not identical. Lastly, I cut out the Mix/Transparent shader and cut time in half again, with, once more, similar but not identical results. Seems like a lot of work for minimal results. But again, I am not sure what the shader node tree is trying to accomplish.