You need to show where you are with your model now before anyone can help you with advice. I would use a circle with enough edges that it can accommodate the correct number of inset and extruded faces there, and then work out the shape outside it from the outside ring.

※ The overall completeness is modified after circularizing the pattern.
Since 1 is formed using a modifier, modifying one pattern applies equally to the whole.

Modify the circle to the desired shape.

※ To connect a circle to a square, create a square equal to the number of Vertex in the circle and then connect it.

If topology modeling is required, modify and use the modeling in 2.
In this case, reducing the number of edges makes the modeling easier to handle.