when using parenting option “Armature deform with automatic weights” to connect armature with mesh, is there any possibility to set how much weight will be assigned, how far from bone, or it is strictly automatic? I know about manual weight painting but it´s not what i mean…
No, there aren’t any parameters for automatic weights.
However, one thing you can try is duplicating and editing the mesh, then using a data transfer to copy weights (via topology) onto the original. The closer the mesh is to the bone, the tighter the weights will be. Sometimes you can do something simple like apply a displace modifier to create more or less diffuse weights.
That is strictly automatic, relative to mesh geometry.
Each vertex is supposed to receive a weight from closest bone.
It does not matter how far away from closest bone, it is.
An alternative is to use Envelopes.
For each bone, you can define an Envelope Distance and an Envelope Weight.