Need help to apply a 3D printable to a wall

Hey everyone, I am new to Blender.I want to use blender in the first place to sculp and construct models for 3D printing.
My first project is a castle. For this I want to start easy and only construct a wall. I want to put 3D printable textures on the front- and backside. In a tutorial I found the solution to do this with a texture and material created from a displacement picture. I used the displacement modifier.
Is there an alternative way to aplly a 3D-texture, ideally procedual, to an user-defined surface. My second idea was to use the stencil in the sculpting-mode but there the texture is overlapping. It would be great if someone has an idea or knows a solution.