This is weekly challenge #748 entry (with the theme: fractal) :
The breakdown is as follows :
The basic shape is a Fibonacci spiral, using beveled and tapered Bezier curve.
By the way, the overal shape of this single segment is what the title refer to.
Arrangement of the patterns is achieved via array modifier using object offset, in which this method can also gives control to object scaling. It took quite a while to get a good result, where the arrays can follow neatly the curve as well as the diminishing scale.